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Improved Two Photon-Imaging Through Laser Pulse Compression with the Linear Array DM

Posted by Michael Feinberg on Fri, Dec 07, 2012 @ 09:05 AM

Tags: boston micromachines, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Janelia Farm Research Campus, BMC, two photon, fluorescence, microscopy, laser pulse compression

In our last blog post (Fast and Precise Laser Pulse Compression with the Linear Array DM) we discussed research being done in the Cui Lab at HHMI’s Janelia Farm Research Campus that used our Linear Array DM for laser pulse compression.  In part two we examine a two photon fluorescence microscopy project led by associate Reto Fiolka at Janelia Farm that illustrates the use of the Linear Array’s potential as a pulse compressor for imaging applications using the phase resolved interferometric spectral modulation (PRISM) optimization technique.

The Linear Array pulse compressor setup was used to restore the laser pulse to its transform limited state, thus improving the ability to excite fluorescence by two photon absorption. A sample consisting of 10 micron diameter fluorescence beads (emission: 465 nm) was prepared and spread on a cover-slip. The laser beam first propagated through the pulse compressor and was subsequently focused on the sample using a 20X NA 0.5 Nikon objective. A 2D image was obtained by translating a motorized sample stage. Without spectral pulse shaping, only a weak fluorescence signal could be obtained (See figures a and c). Since the objective adds significant additional dispersion to the laser pulse, the spectral phase correction that had been determined previously using the photodiode could not be used. Therefore PRISM optimization was repeated using the fluorescence signal coming from the beads itself as a feedback signal.

Janelia Farm’s results show a dramatic increase in fluorescence signal for the optimized spectral phase (see figures b and d). The signal strength was increased by a factor of ~6.5

twophoton microscopy resized 600

 

According to Fiolka, “The tested device represents a promising alternative to liquid crystal displays, since the MEMS technology enables high filling factor, high efficiency and operation speed, exceptional phase stability and accuracy and can be used over a very broad wavelength spectrum.”

We're very excited about these results and we are currently working with other groups interested in reproducing these results on tissue samples.  Thanks again to Dr. Fiolka and the Janelia Farm group for their efforts in improving two photon imaging techniques!!

More details can be found in our Linear Array white paper which includes an application overview of this exciting project.  You can also link to the research directly using the links to the Cui Lab and the scientific publication above.

Fast and Precise Laser Pulse Compression with the Linear Array DM

Posted by Michael Feinberg on Wed, Nov 07, 2012 @ 10:33 AM

Tags: deformable mirror, adaptive optics, boston micromachines, laser science, Janelia Farm Research Campus, microscopy, laser pulse shaping, ultrafast lasers

Linear ArrayUltrafast lasers have been extensively used in ground breaking  research including two Nobel Prizes.  Applications within spectroscopy, photochemistry, laser processing and microscopy are widespread.  However, to capitalize on such short laser pulses, a pulse compressor is required to compensate for the dispersion induced by optical elements. Liquid crystal based spatial light modulators are most commonly used in laser pulse compressors.  Although a proven technology in display applications, liquid crystals have drawbacks including phase jitter and a limited fill factor.  Researchers at the Cui Lab at HHMI’s Janelia Farm Research Campus looked to Boston Micromachines Corporation’s prototype Linear Array Deformable Mirror (DM) to address these challenges.

To evaluate the performance of the pulse compressor, the laser pulses were analyzed with frequency resolved optical gating (FROG) using a commercial instrument (Grenouille, Swamp Optics, Atlanta, GA). In Figure a and b, the temporal and spectral profile of the pulse is shown when a flat wavefront is displayed on the DM. Evidently, the pulse is distorted and the spectral phase is not flat at all (a flat spectral phase is required for a transform limited pulse). Next, the beam returning from the pulse compressor was focused with a concave mirror onto a GaAsP photodiode and the resulting nonlinear signal was used as a feedback for the correction algorithm. After optimization using a technique called Phase resolved interferometric spectral modulation (PRISM), the temporal profile (Figure c) shows a dramatically shorter, Gaussian shaped pulse. The spectral phase is perfectly flat (Figure d) with less than 0.01 radians phase error and is stable in time. These results suggest that the precision and stability of the Linear Array DM allows close to perfect restoration of transform limited laser pulses.  For more information on the optimization technique, you can access a scientific publication here.

 

 pulse compression, FROG, pulse shaper

 

In our next blog post, we will discuss the results of the use of the Linear Array DM in an interesting two-photon microscopy experiment.

More details can be found in our Linear Array white paper which includes a more detailed description of this application.

Wavefront Sensorless Adaptive Optics Now a Reality

Posted by Michael Feinberg on Mon, Oct 01, 2012 @ 11:57 AM

Tags: deformable mirror, adaptive optics, boston micromachines, laser beam, laser science, mirror technology

WASO for blog

 

Up until recently nearly all adaptive optics (AO) systems used wavefront sensors for correction. But with recent advances, off-the-shelf wavefront sensorless AO is becoming a reality.  Benefits of this type of AO include enhanced aberration correction due to the elimination of non-common path errors and wavefront sensor noise.

BMC has developed a Wavefront Sensorless AO Demonstrator (WS-AOD) which provides a platform for utilizing metric-based wavefront control with BMC MEMS deformable mirror (DM) technology. While conventional AO systems perform closed-loop DM control using direct measurements of the wavefront as feedback, the metric-based approach uses details in the aberrated light to improve clarity. Two versions are available; one is optimized for beam shaping applications and the other is designed for imaging applications.

We see laser beam shaping as a key area in this exciting technology and our demonstrator is built to address the unique challenges of this field. Our WS-AOD serves as an introduction to wavefront sensorless adaptive optics principles. It allows users to understand the details involved in properly implementing a metric-based adaptive optics solution on an optical system. The demonstrator can also be used as a stand-alone aberration compensator. By introducing aberrations in the sample stage, the system can be optimized for a multitude of use cases from laser research applications to scanning laser microscopy. Additionally, the user can easily integrate the hardware into an existing optical system and utilize the open source software code for metric-based correction.

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Schematic of WS-AOD for beam shaping applications. Also available for imaging applications.

To compensate for phase aberrations the WS-AOD uses BMC’s deformable mirror (DM) technology. BMC’s DM is a continuous facesheet deformable mirror that is controlled by hysteresis-free electrostatic actuators located on a square grid. The full DM activemulti DM aperture can be as little as 1.5 mm to as much as 25 mm across. Each actuator can provide up to 5.5 µm of mechanical stroke, which corresponds to about 11 µm of phase control. The electrostatic actuator array is driven using independent high voltage channels with 14-bit resolution. This corresponds to sub-nanometer displacement precision. The drive electronics can provide frame rates of from about 4.6 kHz up to 100 kHz.

The control software for WS-AOD allows the user to correct for aberrations introduced as well as generate a random aberration using the DM. The software is open source code based in Mathwork’s Matlab and runs on platforms using Windows operating systems. By utilizing the included algorithm to manipulate the mirror surface, the mirror compensates for aberrations and converges to an optimal profile. The user has access to the open source code to balance correction capability between maximum signal and minimal time.

To learn more please click here for a copy of our Wavefront Sensorless Adaptive Optics white paper.

CLEO 2012: Concentrated Interest in Adaptive Optics

Posted by Michael Feinberg on Wed, Jun 06, 2012 @ 03:49 PM

Tags: deformable mirror, adaptive optics, boston micromachines, laser science, biological imaging, astronomy, CLEO

BMC at CLEO

This year, the CLEO Conference had its normal interesting character:  A variety of users from hardcore laser scientists to focused business interests to laser scanning imaging folks.  BostonMEMS Optical Modulator Micromachines took our position within the Thorlabs booth for the 5th year(thanks again, guys!) and demonstrated some great technologies that we think will make an impact in the industry.  Our MEMS Optical Modulator  generated a fair amount of interest and prompted some great questions about its capabilities and possibilities.  We showed its flexibility by demonstrating how with a simple input signal and an amplifier, a reflective diffractive element can be used to couple light into a fiber at varying frequency and amplitude.  We went into the show thinking this would be the big topic of conversation.  While we did have some great conversations and we’re more than happy with the response, the real star of the show was our Wavefront Sensorless Adaptive Optics Demonstrator for Beam Shaping. Users from all walks of the laser industry approached me with potential uses from wavefront characterizationWavefront Sensorless Adaptive Optics Demonstrator techniques to photon counting.  I learned that the simplistic nature of the kit (maximize a signal through a pinhole) allows researchers with very different backgrounds to think of interesting ways to take advantage of its versatility.  We found that the simple, clear spot on the screen was enough to entice microscopists and laser scientists alike to brainstorm interesting ways in which to integrate the deformable mirror, detector and algorithm of the system into their latest work.  I am looking forward to some great follow-up conversations!

I did get the chance to venture out of the booth for a few talks as well as touch base with some new and old friends.  Major impressions:

1)      AO is still not a major player in laser science

While there were some interesting topics and uses of deformable mirrors and spatial light modulators, the technique is by no means pervasive as in other industries such as astronomy or biological imaging.  Other techniques such as MIIPS (congratulations again, Dr. Dantus) serve the industry and are well proven to be able to satisfactorily shape pulses. Another theory:  Laser scientists prefer to go after the laser for improvements instead of supplementary hardware.  This could be for a variety of reasons such as: a) extra hardware means lost light, b) this is where they are comfortable and love to tweak things or c) the cost is just too high right now.

2)      Beam characterization is becoming more affordable

With a few companies introducing higher speed and lower cost wavefront sensors, the market is becoming more accessible to more researchers.  This can only be good for everyone.

3)      Booth traffic is down, but more focused

In past years, my conversations were usually an even split between educating the visitor about the basics and having in-depth discussions about the capabilities and possibility of integrating devices into optical systems.  This year, the split was more like 75/25 in favor of detailed discussions.  Many are well aware of the background and of the 75%, at least half approach me with well thought-out ideas.  It is very refreshing and encouraging to have these discussions and I suspect the ratio will continue to grow as years go by.

Overall, it was a productive show.  I look forward to returning to San Jose next year and introduce exciting products that we have in our product roadmap and get more people to shape their light!

Deformable mirrors in space???

Posted by Michael Feinberg on Thu, Jul 21, 2011 @ 12:14 PM

Tags: deformable mirror, adaptive optics, boston micromachines, resolution, segmented, turbulence, astronomy

250px Crab Nebula

Boston Micromachines has been awarded US$ 1.2M in contracts by NASA's Small Business Innovation Research Program (SBIR) to support space-based astronomy research.  Now, one might wonder, considering this is astronomy, “why is anyone spending any money to develop deformable mirrors for use in space telescopes looking out at the stars?  I thought that deformable mirrors were used to remove aberrations introduced by the atmosphere.  There’s no atmosphere up there!”

Well, you’d be right:  There is no atmosphere up there.  But, there are aberrations:  In the optical system.  When systems are designed, none of them are completely perfectly aligned. There’s no such thing.  But, when you’re looking for planets around stars in other galaxies, you need things to be well aligned.  VERY well aligned.  So, to compensate for any misalignments introduced either during transit to space or thermal variations in the instrument, you can use a deformable mirror as part of an adaptive optics system.  So, for this, we are designing a 1021 segment (3063 actuator), tip-tilt-piston deformable mirror.  It is the largest ever designed of this type and is expected to be used as part of a coronagraph telescope for exo-planet research.

Two other things to worry about are power and weight.  In satellites, there is a very limited amount of power, and the weight greatly affects the cost to put the satellite into orbit.  In terms of the mirror, MEMS has that taken care of:  The power is extremely low and the weight is many orders of magnitude lower than traditional piezo-electric-based mirrors.  So, the other half of the equation is the drive electronics.  As part of this research, BMC is designing multiplexed drive electronics which will reduce the size and weight significantly and lower the power even further.

You put the two parts together, mirror hardware and drive electronics, and you have a low-cost, low-power, lightweight solution for the most cutting edge astronomy research going on right now.

If you have any questions, please contact me directly:  I would be happy to talk about these products or refer you to the folks who are attacking this challenging problem.

Link to press release.

(Image credit:  A giant Hubble mosaic of the Crab Nebula, a supernova remnant)

How to select the right deformable mirror for you Part 2: Beam Shaping

Posted by Michael Feinberg on Tue, Jan 11, 2011 @ 12:37 PM

Tags: deformable mirror, adaptive optics, boston micromachines, resolution, response time, laser beam, SLM, spatial light modulator, turbulence, pulse, pulse width, peak power, CW, average power

Laser spotIn our second installment of this series designed to boil down the questions that need to be answered before selecting the right mirror, we will review some of the past categories with alterations specific to laser beam shaping and introduce a few new ones that pertain only to beam shaping.  We plan to focus on pulse shaping applications in our third and final installment of this series.

So you have a beam (CW or pulsed) and you want to control it.  Below are the fundamental questions that need to be asked in order to ensure that you’re on the path to obtaining great results in your research or manufacturing application.  This list should be combined with Part 1 of this series to get the total picture of what’s needed.  I have left out the “pitch” and “response” categories, assuming that you have read the previous installment.  Click here, in case you haven’t.

1)      Aperture:  How big is your beam?

The size of the wavefront is the first and foremost issue to understand.  Some applications have no control over this while others can change the size of their wavefront through the use of some simple focusing optics.  Before doing research into your alternatives, you should figure out what your limitations are in relation to this.

2)      Control:  Phase control? Beam steering?

This will greatly affect the basic type of mirror you will need.  For phase control, most modern phase-only mirrors will work, depending on your requirement of resolution (see “2. Resolution” from Part 1 of this series).  However, if you get into beam steering, the amount you need to move your beam will greatly affect the type of mirror you need.  For example, if you’re trying to move the beam multiple degrees, a fast-steering mirror is probably a good place to start.  However, if you’re looking to only make very fine adjustments (milliradians), you can benefit from MEMS-based solutions which are usually referred to as tip-tilt-piston (TTP) devices or piston-tip-tilt, if you’re from one other particular company out there (you know who you are J).  Many customers have come to us asking about using our entire mirror surface to steer a beam.  For those asking for big angles, we unfortunately have to turn them away, but some want to steer it a very slight angle at high levels of precision and we can do that.  

3)      Speed:  Do you want to make fine adjustments?  Are you looking to phase-wrap?

If you’re shaping a beam that is pretty much static, then some low-cost solutions will work.  However, if you’re looking to change the profile at high speeds with high precision, MEMS solutions are a great bet.  The stroke is sufficient to accomplish phase-wrapping, using our SLM model (segmented surface). With sub-nanometer precision, very precisely-shaped beams are possible.

4)      PowerVisible laser

This is a biggie:  If you have a high-powered laser, your options become limited very quickly as most of the very precise devices are a bit fragile as well.  Lots of research is being conducted to steer big, powerful lasers and the bulk of the technologies out there fall short due the fact that they are made of thin-film surfaces and temperature-sensitive materials. My recommendation for this is to make sure you know the “big three” properties and contact individual manufacturers to see what their experience is. They are:

1)      Peak power (in W/cm2)

2)      Average power

3)      Pulse width (if applicable)

Most manufacturers probably can’t guarantee much, but if your application has beam characteristics close to some of the data points they have, then it will make you much more comfortable that you won’t be frying mirrors when you fire things up.  BMC has a database that is constantly being updated with new experience that we would be happy to discuss.  Also, see this paper for the latest published results from our friends at the UCO/Lick Observatory.

As I mentioned before, this is not exhaustive, but if you have these questions answered, your first conversation with either us or one of our competitors will be a pleasant one which will make you more confident of your purchase.

Please chime in and let me know what you think of this series!   Again, stay tuned for the final installment where I will talk about pulse-shaping and the different ways that deformable mirror technologies can be used to create the perfect pulse!

How much freedom does your deformable mirror have?

Posted by Michael Feinberg on Thu, Sep 30, 2010 @ 10:39 AM

Tags: deformable mirror, adaptive optics, boston micromachines, resolution, segmented, degrees of freedom

FREEEEEEDOOOOOM!!Brave mel resized 600

Although William Wallace shouted this in the movie, “Braveheart,” as he died in the hopes to inspire others to join his fight against tyranny, our interest here at Boston Micromachines is related to “degrees of freedom” rather than individual rights. I chose this as a post because numerous times we have come across customers who miscalculate the minimum number of control points (re: actuators) needed to satisfy their wavefront control needs because the forget about this simple concept. Here’s an example:

A customer recently came to us insisting that they needed one of our advanced tip-tilt-piston devices over a continuous surface deformable mirror.  Their reasoning was that with the same number of actuators, to correct for their wavefront, tipping and tilting the individual segments would give them more control than using the simple piston mechanism of our continuous device.  This is true if you compare the number of segments (with three actuators) to the number of single actuators of a continuous DM.  However, if you choose to use a tip-tilt-piston device over a continuous surface mirror, you actually need more actuators (if you work out the numbers, 1.8 times more) to achieve the same level of correction capability. This has been explained and presented very well by Claire Max at UC Santa Cruz.  See the presentation materials here (Slide 47 goes over the equations).

If we step back from the equations and look for the basic concept behind this, it boils down to the ability to change the profile of the surface in many more ways using a continuous membrane as opposed to stiff, separate segments.  Even more simply put: If you want to approximate a curvy line using only a few points (five, let’s say), would you prefer to use a slightly less curvy line, or a series of straight lines? 

The figure below illustrates this concept.

Deformable Mirror Degrees of Freedom
 So, the next time you’re considering wavefront control, keep this in mind before hitching your wagon to a particular architecture. THINK FREEDOM!!!!! 

AO-OCT wins 2010 R&D 100 Award!!

Posted by Michael Feinberg on Fri, Jul 09, 2010 @ 02:40 PM

Tags: deformable mirror, adaptive optics, boston micromachines, retinal imaging, OCT

We received notice yesterday that an Adaptive Optics Optical Coherence Tomography device for retinal imaging built by Lawrence Livermore National Labs won a 2010 R&D 100 Award! 

Why do I mention this?MEMS deformable mirror-enabled AO-OCT Image

Because our Multi-DM is a central wavefront correcting component in the system.  For those of you looking for nitty-gritty details, this is a single-deformable mirror system with a Badal optometer used for low-order corrections. The DM is 140 actuators with an aperture of 3.3mm x 3.3mm and stroke of 1.5 microns (wondering what these terms mean? Refer to this previous post for definitions and our website here for more on the mirror model). Check out the other award-winning inventions at the link below.

Congrats, guys and we’re looking forward to the awards dinner later this year! 

Picture: Retina in 3D shown with 3-micron resolution, smaller than most eye cells.

Link for more information: https://publicaffairs.llnl.gov/news/news_releases/2010/NR-10-07-02.html

Update:  We're on TV!  Check out the video below from ABC 7 News in San Francisco:

How to select the right deformable mirror for you Part 1: Imaging

Posted by Michael Feinberg on Tue, Jun 15, 2010 @ 02:10 PM

Tags: deformable mirror, adaptive optics, boston micromachines, Boston University, product information, Woofer Tweeter, resolution, response time

deformable mirrorIn this multi-part series, I will be exploring the basic questions that one needs to answer in order to determine which type of deformable mirror is best suited for their application. This list is by no means exhaustive, but if one has an understanding of these topics, the journey to creating spectacular images will be much smoother and equally as rewarding. I am starting with imaging since this is a field that is constantly expanding to new disciplines and often involves researchers who are not familiar with adaptive optics. The next topic will be beam shaping, with further topics to be introduced in the future.
Potential customers come to us at Boston Micromachines to design an adaptive optics system for many different applications: Confocal microscopy, conventional microscopy, astronomy, etc. However, many of them don't know their options when selecting the right mirror. We think we've reduced the questions you need to ask to four simple topics. If each customer reviews this list before giving us a call, finding a mirror best suited for their application will be as exciting as viewing that killer image you're trying to get:

1) Aperture: How big is your image? How big (or small) can you make it?
The size of the wavefront is the first and foremost issue to understand. Some applications have no control over this while others can change the size of their wavefront through the use of some simple focusing optics. Before doing research into your alternatives, you should figure out what your limitations are in relation to this.

2) Resolution: How complex are your aberrations? zernike
Having the right aperture is great, but if your mirror does not have a high enough level of precision, your image improvement will be greatly limited. In the deformable mirror industry, we call this distance between control points, "pitch." In our devices, it is the distance between actuators. In membrane-type mirrors, it will be the distance between electrodes that are underneath but not directly connected to the surface. If your aperture can be manipulated, the precision to which you can control the wavefront will most likely be directly affected by this adjustment. Also, the size of the pitch can affect the price of the mirror. So, understanding what the relationship is between aperture, pitch and price can help you not only find the right mirror, but minimize your costs.

3) Aberration: How big (deep) are your aberrations?DM  Profile
While aperture and resolution cover you in two dimensions, depth is the final critical physical dimension. The size of your aberrations will directly impact the necessary stroke (the distance the surface of the mirror can travel up and down). If you have very small aberrations and require a high level of precision to correct your wavefront, you can focus on MEMS-based solutions, like those provided by Boston Micromachines (available stroke is between 1.5 and 5.5um). However, if you require larger stroke, you may need to focus on more flexible electro-static or piezo-electrically motivated membrane surfaces. Most recently, some have executed what we call a woofer-tweeter approach where a larger mirror corrects for the larger aberrations (the woofer) and a smaller, more precise mirror fine-tunes the image (the tweeter). You can see an article on this in the June 2010 issue of Photonics Spectra: "Dual Deformable Mirror Systems Take the High and Low Roads to Imaging Success." Size of the aberrations is a critical point to understand due the fact that if you don't have enough stroke or high enough level of precision, your image may not improve enough to be impactful.

4) Response: How fast do your aberrations move?
If you're dealing with static medium, then this is not an issue. However, if you are dealing with atmospheric turbulence, as in astronomy, or in vivo conditions in live specimens, then this is a critical parameter. While this is dependent on the structural composition and design of the mirror, it is also dependent on the drive electronics and controller. So, make sure that both your system (PC or other controller) and the electronics associated with the mirror are up to snuff for your application.

Purchasing a deformable mirror should be an exciting endeavor: The images obtained to date have been astounding. I'm sure that with proper preparation and understanding, it can be successful for you as well.

ARVO 2010: Indications of the maturity of adaptive optics and 3 takeaways

Posted by Michael Feinberg on Thu, May 13, 2010 @ 01:13 PM

Tags: deformable mirror, adaptive optics, boston micromachines, Woofer Tweeter, OCT, SLO, ARVO

This year at the Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology (ARVO) Annual Meeting, there were some notable differences from past years. There was a shift in focus in the use of adaptive optics from talking about the technology to making discoveries.  Here are the two major indicators:

1)      Adaptive Optics is leaving the Title Page

In past years, there has been amazing research produced from the labs the likes of Roorda, Burns and Williams. But, you'll have to admit that for many of these studies the big "wow" in using adaptive optics for imaging the eye has been the technological innovation and the impressive science and not necessarily the clinical applications.  One indicator of this change is the fact that until this year, most of the papers presented at ARVO which used adaptive optics contained the term "adaptive optics" in the title and not just the abstract.  This year, that number dwindled significantly as the main focus shifted away from coolness factor.  Whether it be new discoveries of cone structure properties with subjects which have genetic mutations or realizations about different types of color blindness, it is now the science and the promise of clinical applications that is center stage and not the technology.

2)      Posters and presentations are showing fewer optical layouts

I spent three days last week at ARVO reaching out to the community and listening in on what is new and interesting. I found it difficult to figure out which mirror was used in any given experiment.  This is simply due to the fact that most of the presentations and posters did not specifically call out what equipment was used in their research.  As much as this made my job a little more difficult, I welcome this progression.  It means that AO is becoming just another piece of equipment rather than a unique addition.

I welcome you to visit the ARVO site and type "adaptive optics" into the keyword finder.  There, you'll discover all of the interesting research that is going on in the industry related to our mirrors.  The main takeaways that I had from the show:

  • Precision+stroke = success

The removal of higher-order aberrations is most often paramount in obtaining high-quality images. However, while low-order aberrations can be removed with fixed optics, increased stroke is key to convenience and in some cases, performance. To that end, more and more woofer-tweeter systems (using two deformable mirrors: one long-stroke, low precision and the other short-stroke, high precision) are being used to obtain great images.  Check out the upcoming June issue of Photonics Spectra for a byline article on the topic.

  • Two-photon: The next frontier in vision science?

While there were very few groups using this two-photon fluorescent microscopy, this is a discipline that I found very interesting and I think it could be a new avenue beyond scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) for retinal imaging.

  • Wide-field AOSLO imaging

Until recently, the only way to image a large region of the eye and gain any perspective on where you were imaging was to use a fundus image and take the small-area images from the AO imaging system and line them up with key features:  Not an easy task.  This year, Steve Burns unveiled his newest instrument where he was able to scan over multiple areas using an adaptive optics SLO and create a composite wide-field image of the retina.  While this task is equally difficult, it offers a new exciting approach to this process and holds promise for advances in imaging the retina.